In the newsletter of the Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine No. 8 dated August 20, 2019, New State Construction Standards for the design of residential buildings are published.
We remind you that State Construction Standards are documents that govern the design and construction of various buildings, neighborhoods, and objects of infrastructure. They are referred, for example, during the construction of new real estate. Adopted back in the year 1992, they no longer meet the modern realities of construction, and therefore the need to make the necessary adjustments arose.
Innovations introduce a number of fundamental changes in the construction and reconstruction of housing.
In particular, there significantly expands the ability to place built-in and built-in & attached public premises: shops, cafes, beauty salons, bank branches, etc. Now they can be placed on any floor of a residential building. Previously, this was allowed to be done only up to the 3rd floor, inclusive.
In this case, a mandatory requirement for the placement of such a built-in establishment is to allocate it in a separate fire compartment.
At the same time, objects that negatively affect a person in terms of noise, vibration, electromagnetic radiation, radiation categorically cannot be located in residential buildings.
Also, standards now prohibit placing in residential buildings the following:
Hotels and hostels;
Shops with a total area of more than 1000 square meters;
Specialized establishments and enterprises, the operation of which can lead to pollution of the territory and air;
Specialized stores of construction goods, lubricants and other goods (for example, paints, varnishes, flammable substances and materials);
Workshops for the repair of shoes and household machines and appliances with an area of more than 100 square meters;
Baths, saunas, production facilities,
Funeral offices and the like.
In accordance with the law, these standards come into force 3 months after publication – i.e., from December 1 of this year.
In addition, we remind you that from the year 2019 some fundamental changes to state construction standards have already entered into force.
First of all, in these standards it is worth noting the emergence of new terms. Along with the concept of “red lines” that limit the streets, roads, territories of neighborhoods, new ones have now appeared – “yellow”, “green” and “blue” lines, in particular:
“Green lines” provide for restrictions on the construction of parks, forests, natural reserves and other green areas.
“Blue lines” regulate the height of construction. They are designed to solve the problem of chaotic development of buildings in height.
“Yellow lines” are intended to limit the areas of possible blockages of buildings so that, in case of emergency, the possibility of evacuating people remains. I.e., the closer to the evacuation exits of an existing building a new object will be reduced, the lower its height should be.
Previously, the maximum height of the buildings was not regulated. The new rules introduce restrictions on the height of buildings depending on the locality. In villages – up to 4 floors, in urban settlements – up to 5; in cities with a population of up to 50,000 inhabitants – up to 9; from 50 to 100,000 inhabitants – up to 16 floors; in large cities, where more than 100,000 inhabitants live – the altitude will be regulated by urban planning documents (General Plan, detailed plan of territories).
These State Construction Standards also cover transport issues. So, in cities with a population of more than 100,000 people, integrated traffic patterns should be developed for 30-40 years. They should be based on the General Plan, where street classes, principles for the construction of road junctions and intersections will be determined, and traffic intensity and speed will be calculated. These schemes should help large cities intelligently develop transportation, organize traffic and give preference to public transport and bicycles.
In the new State Construction Standards the topic of parking is discussed. So, it is forbidden to place parking lots inside residential quarters from now on. I.e., they should be placed at the side of the street, and not in the courtyard of the building. In addition, it is now permitted to build exclusively underground parking lots in the historical centers of cities.
According to the new standards, it is now possible to create small kindergartens on the first floors of residential buildings. Previously, this was permitted only in individual buildings. Such an innovation is designed to relieve kindergartens and reduce their queues. The permitted area for studying per pupil is also increasing from 2-2.4 square meters to 3 meters. At the same time, access to educational institutions should be barrier-free. For this, it is necessary to equip ramps, elevators, medical facilities, while garden rooms, a gym, locker rooms should be adapted for people with disabilities.
In addition, from April 1, 2019, new construction standards “Buildings and Structures. The Inclusivity of Buildings and Structures”. This document contains more than 100 changes for the safety and comfort of people with disabilities, older people, parents with young children, pregnant women and other people with limited mobility. The standards regulate the mandatory arrangement of barrier-free elements, as well as provide technical design specifications for ramps, elevators, tactile elements, Braille tables, special sound signaling devices.